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 كيفية كتابة مقالة )Essay(

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تاريخ التسجيل : 14/09/2011
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مُساهمةموضوع: كيفية كتابة مقالة )Essay(   السبت أكتوبر 08, 2011 5:40 pm









السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته


حبيت اني انقل لكم هذه القواعد لكتابة مقالة باللغة الانجليزية تساعدكم في الاختبار .. الموضوع منقول من منتديات من

الجامعة العربية المفتوحة و هذا الرابط للأمانة :


http://www.q82.net/phpbb2/viewtopic.php?t=36684

و هذا رابط الجواب :

http://www.q82.net/phpbb2/viewtopic.php?t=12594





What is a well written answer to an essay question?
It is...

Well Focused
Be sure to answer the question completely, that is, answer all parts of the question. Avoid "padding." A lot of rambling and ranting is a sure sign that the writer doesn't really know what the right answer is and hopes that somehow, something in that overgrown jungle of words was the correct answer.

Well Organized
Don't write in a haphazard "think-as-you-go" manner. Do some planning and be sure that what you write has a clearly marked introduction which both states the point(s) you are going to make and also, if possible, how you are going to proceed. In addition, the essay should have a clearly indicated conclusion which summarizes the material covered and emphasizes your thesis or main point.

Well Supported
Do not just assert something is true, prove it. What facts, figures, examples, tests, etc. prove your point? In many cases, the difference between an A and a B as a grade is due to the effective use of supporting evidence.

Well Packaged
People who do not use conventions of language are thought of by their readers as less competent and less educated. If you need help with these or other writing skills, come to the Writing Lab!

How do you write an effective essay exam?1.Read through all the questions carefully.

2.Budget your time and decide which question(s) you will answer first.

3.Underline the key word(s) which tell you what to do for each question.

4.Choose an organizational pattern appropriate for each key word and plan your answers on scratch paper or in the margins.

5.Write your answers as quickly and as legibly as you can; do not take the time to recopy.

A.Begin each answer with one or two sentence thesis which summarizes your answer. If possible, phrase the statement so that it rephrases the question's essential terms into a statement (which therefore directly answers the essay question).

B.Support your thesis with specific references to the material you have studied.

6.Proofread your answer and correct errors in spelling and mechanics.

Specific organizational patterns and "key words"Most essay questions will have one or more "key words" that indicate which organizational pattern you should use in your answer. The six most common organizational patterns for essay exams are definition, analysis, cause and effect, comparison/contrast, process analysis, and thesis-support.


Definition Typical questions

"Define X."

"What is an X?"

"Choose N terms from the following list and define them."

Process

1.State the term to be defined.

2.State the class of objects or concepts to which the term belongs.

3.Differentiate the term from other members of the class by listing the term's distinguishing characteristics.


Example


Q: "What is a fanzine?"


A: A fanzine is a magazine written, mimeographed, and distributed by and for science fiction or comic strip enthusiasts.

Avoid constructions such as "An encounter group is where ..." and "General semantics is when ... ."

Tools you can use

Details which describe the term

Examples and incidents

Comparisons to familiar terms

Negation to state what the term is not

Classification (i.e., break it down into parts)

Examination of origins or causes

Examination of results, effects, or uses

AnalysisTypical questions

"Analyze X."

"What are the components of X?"

"What are the five different kinds of X?"

"Discuss the different types of X."

Example:

Analysis involves breaking something down into its components and discovering the parts that make up the whole.

Q: "Discuss the different services a junior college offers a community."


A: Thesis: A junior college offers the community at least three main types of educational services: vocational education for young people, continuing education for older people, and personal development for all individuals.


Outline for supporting details and examples:

A. Vocational education

B. Continuing education

C. Personal development

Useful transition words:


first, second, third, etc.

next


another


in addition


moreover

Cause and EffectTypical questions:

"What are the causes of X?"

"What led to X?"

"Why did X occur?"

"Why does X happen?"

"What would be the effects of X?"

Example
Cause and effect involves tracing probable or known effects of a certain cause or examining one or more effects and discussing the reasonable or known cause(s).

Q: "Define recession and discuss the probable effects a recession would have on today's society."


A: Thesis: A recession, which is a nationwide lull in business activity, would be detrimental to society in the following ways: it would .......A......., it would .......B......., and it would .......C....... .

The rest of the answer would explain, in some detail, the three effects: A, B, and C.

Useful transition words:

because


consequently


therefore


for this reason


as a result


Comparison-ContrastTypical questions:

"How does X differ from Y?"

"Compare X and Y."

"What are the advantages and disadvantages of X and Y?"

Example:

Q: "Which would you rather own--a compact car or a full-sized car?"


A: Thesis: I would own a compact car rather than a full-sized car for the following reasons: .......A......., .......B......., .......C......., and .......D....... .

Two patterns of development:

Pattern 1

1. Full-sized car

A. Advantages

B. Disadvantages

2. Compact car

1.Advantages

2.Disadvantages

Pattern 2

1.Advantages

A.Full-sized car

B.Compact car

2.Disadvantages

A.Full-sized car

B.Compact car


Useful transition word


on the other hand


similarly


yet


unlike A, B ...


in the same way


but


while both A and B are ..., only B ..
nevertheless


on the contrary


though


despite


however


conversely


while A is ..., B is ...


Process
Typical questions

"Describe how X is accomplished."

"List the steps involved in X."

"Explain what happened in X."

"What is the procedure involved in X?"

Process (sometimes called process analysis)

This involves giving directions or telling the reader how to do something. It may involve discussing some complex procedure as a series of discrete steps. The organization is almost always chronological.

Example

Q: "According to Richard Bolles' What Color Is Your Parachute?, what is the best procedure for finding a job?"


A: In What Color Is Your Parachute?, Richard Bolles lists seven steps that all job-hunters should follow: .....A....., .....B....., .....C....., .....D....., .....E....., .....F....., and .....G..... .

The remainder of the answer should discuss each of these seven steps in some detail.

Useful transition words

first, second, third, etc.


next


then


following this

finally
after, afterwards, after this


subsequently


simultaneously, concurrently



Thesis and Support
Typical questions:

"Discuss X."

"A noted authority has said X. Do you agree or disagree?"

"Defend or refute X."

"Do you think that X is valid? Defend your position."

Thesis and support involves stating a clearly worded opinion or interpretation and then defending it with all the data, examples, facts, and so on that you can draw from the material you have studied.

Example:

Q: "Despite criticism, television is useful because it aids in the socializing process of our children."


A: Television hinders rather than helps in the socializing process of our children because .......A......., .......B......., and .......C....... .


The rest of the answer is devoted to developing arguments A, B, and C.

Useful transition words:
therefore


for this reason


it follows that


as a result
because

however



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